Another bacterium, Erwinia carotovora subsp. In: The PLANTS Database, Baton Rouge, USA: National Plant Data Center. Solanum chloranthum DC. Collecting eggplant and okra in Madhya Pradesh and Maharashtra, India. The name Solanum reflexum Schrank according to GBIF (2012) and Catalogue of Life (2012), equates with S. aculatissimum. Weed Technology, 21(3):791-795., Bryson CT, Westbrooks R, Maddow V, 2009. Effect of different levels of NPK on solasodine content of Solanum viarum in paddy fallows. 11(4): 656-661. Medal, J. C., and Cuda, J. P. 2010. Tap water or hot water pretreatments increase the rate of germination by 26%, and KNO3, GA3 or ethephon increase germination by 53%., GBIF, 2008. The plant is branched at the base, the branches heavily armed with prickles 2 - … Talekar N S, Hau T B H, Chang W C, 1999. 21 (3), 791-795. DOI:10.1614/WT-06-206.1, CABI, Undated. Two bacteria, Ralstonia solanacearum and Erwinia carotovora subsp. Solanum viarum is an aggressive perennial shrub native to Brazil and Argentina, that has been introduced to other parts of South America, North America, Africa and Asia. The normal chromosome number is 2n=24 (Kumaraswamy and Krishnan, 1987; Chiarini, 2006; Missouri Botanical Garden, 2008) but autotetraploids have been deliberately created for cultivation in India (Srinivasappa et al., 1999). Solanum viarum, a trap crop for Helicoverpa armigera. > 0°C, dry winters), Mean maximum temperature of hottest month (ºC), Mean minimum temperature of coldest month (ºC), number of consecutive months with <40 mm rainfall, Movement of cattle, manure, hay within USA, GISD/IASPMR: Invasive Alien Species Pathway Management Resource and DAISIE European Invasive Alien Species Gateway. A Global Compendium of Weeds. S. viarum is listed on the USA Federal Noxious Weed List, and hence its possession, movement and release is prohibited in the USA (USDA-NRCS, 2008). It is also given to dogs infected with Dirofilaria immitis (Chakraborty et al., 1994). (2005), who showed that the plant contains potent attractants for Helicoverpa armigera.S. Sepals about 3-5 mm long, corolla of white, somewhat narrow, reflexed petals, anthers pale yellow. ], Mullahey JJ, Cornell J, 1994., USDA/TAG, 2008. carotovora have also been shown to damage S. viarum and are of interest for inundative biocontrol in the USA. is apparently still in progress. It is now also found in a small area of California (EDDMapS, 2013), and is on quarantine or noxious weed lists for a number of other states in the USA other than in its recorded range (USDA-NRCS, 2012). Influence of postemergence herbicides on tropical soda apple (Solanum viarum) and bahiagrass (Paspalum notatum). Edinburgh, UK: Royal Botanic Gardens. The Families of Flowering Plants. Richmond, Surrey, UK: Royal Botanic Gardens Kew, 258-266, Nee M, 1999. anguivi differs in having mauve flowers and tomentose underside to the leaves, while S. aculeatissimum (= S. khasianum var. It is not yet recorded in Pacific or Indian Ocean islands (PIER, 2008), and it may appear imperative that introduction to these or any other new areas is prevented, noting its ability to spread very rapidly as has recently occurred in the south-eastern USA. List of species of the Flora of Brazil. Mowing is an effective practice to prevent seed production, even after flowering has started, although plant regrowth will occur and the practice should be repeated when plants start flowering again. S. viarum can be distinguished from other Solanum species by its straight prickles, mixture of stellate and simple hairs with and without glands, clearly petioled leaves with a velvety sheen, terminal flower clusters, and yellow berries that are dark-veined when young (Florida Exotic Pest Plant Council, 2011). The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. DAISIE, 2012. Biology of Gratiana boliviana, the first biocontrol agent released to control tropical soda apple in the USA [ed. Quinn. It may act as an alternate host of a range of crop pathogens, including Cucumber mosaic virus, Potato leaf roll virus, Potato Y virus, Tomato mosaic virus and the fungus Alternaria solani (Cooke, 1997), though there are no reports of direct economic loss from this. of Agriculture and Conservation Services , (No. It produces thousands of small seeds (40,000 to 50,000 seeds per plant) that can be easily dispersed by birds, raccoons, cattle and by human activity (seed-contaminated grass, manure, mud, and farming machinery; Medal et al., 2012). EDDMapS, 2013. USA: USDA/TAG. Florida Entomologist, 94(2), 214-225. Tropicos database. Known as “aubergine” in Europe, the name “brinjal” is common to Southeast Asia, South Asia, and Africa. Also, the tropical soda apple contains solasodine, which is poisonous to humans if consumed. Indian Journal of Agronomy, 45(3):551-554, Bombarely A, Menda N, Tecle IY, Buels RM, Strickler S, Fischer-York T, Pujar A, Leto J, Gosselin J, Mueller LA, 2011. Axelrod F, 2011. Germination of S. viarum is moderately photoblastic with 30% germination occurring in the dark. To avoid the risk of introducing the weed when purchasing cattle from an infested area, the livestock should be kept in a restricted area for at least 6 days by which time any ingested seeds should have been voided (Mullahey et al., 2006). S. viarum is classified as a weed by the Global Compendium of Weeds (Randall, 2012) and it also was declared a noxious weed by the US Department of Agriculture (USDA-Aphis) for the US territories of Alabama, Arizona, California, Florida, Georgia, Massachusetts, Minnesota, Mississippi, North and South Carolina, Oregon, Tennessee, Texas, Vermont and Puerto Rico (USDA-NRCS, 2012). Effectiveness of triclopyr and hexazinone was enhanced when they were applied 60 days after frost had damaged the foliage (Mislevy and Martin, 1999). Description Pubescent shrubs, prickles recurved, to 7 mm long. Welman W G, 2003. Cuda, J. P.; Coile, N. C.; Gandolfo, D.; Medal, J. C.; Mullahey, J. J. 31-34, Medal J, 2008. Leaves alternate, to 12 x 8 cm, ovate, irregularly shallowly lobed, sinuate, base obliquely truncate, densely tomentose on lower surface and less on upper surface; petiole to 5 cm long; spines mostly on petiole and midrib and few on lateral nerves, to 2 cm long, straight. It grows 3 to 6 feet in hight and has leaves shaped like Oak leaves, with clusters of tin white flowers., Watson L, Dallwitz MJ, 1992. Florida EPPC's 2011 Invasive Plant Species List.,, Forzza RC, Leitman PM, Costa AF, Carvalho Jr AA et al, 2012. The PLANTS Database, Version 3. IPAMS: Invasive plant atlas of the Mid South., USA: GeoResources Institute, Mississippi State University. The buds were hairy just like the leaves. Study on seed germination procedures in some medicinal plant species. Biological Forum, 1(2):34-39., Kumaraswamy BK, Krishnan R, 1987. Scripta Botanica Belgica. Solanum viarum. Present: AL, AR, AZ, FL, GA, LA, MS, NC, PR, SC, TN and TX. CABI is a registered EU trademark. Since glyco-alkaloids are located in the gelatinous layer around the seeds, increase in seed number per berry increases the alkaloid content.The agronomy of S. viarum as a crop, grown in fallow land after rice, has been studied, especially in Karnataka, India. It is also able to regenerate from its root system (Medal et al., 2008, 2012). USA, Missouri Botanical Garden, 2008. The fruit is golf-ball-sized with the coloration of a watermelon. KFRI Research Report, Peechi, India: Kerala Forest Research Institute (KFRI). Seeds can be dispersed by birds and other animals, including cattle, deer, feral pigs, and raccoons (Akanda et al. Early Detection & Distribution Mapping System., USA: The University of Georgia - Center for Invasive Species and Ecosystem Health. Outlooks on Pest Management, 18(4):167-171., Chiarini C, 2006. Byrd, John D., Jr.; Bryson, Charles T.; Westbrooks, Randy G. 2004. Common Weeds in Puerto Rico & U.S Virgin Islands., Puerto Rico: University of Puerto Rico, Mayagüez Campus, 395 pp. SS-AGR-77. There are also longer, straight spines up to 2 cm long on the petioles and the veins of upper and lower surfaces of the leaves., GISIN, 2008. Effect of different levels of NPK on solasodine content of Solanum viarum in paddy fallows. It can form huge monocultural stands, crowding out forage and native species and preventing cattle from seeking shade. Antifilarial effect of a combination of botanical compounds from Solanum viarum Dunal and Zingiber officinale Rosc. Tropical soda apple growth and response to herbicides in Georgia. Gainesville, FL: University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agriculture Sciences; Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Department of Agronomy. However, other laboratory tests had shown some feeding on eggplant (Medal et al., 2002) and the release of M. elatior in the USA was rejected in 2008 (USDA/TAG, 2008). Florida Entomologist, 93(1):130-132., Medal J, Gandolfo D, McKay F, Cuda J, 2004. Tropical soda apple (Solanum viarum Dunal) identification and control. The families of flowering plants: descriptions, illustrations, identification, and information retrieval. Wallingford, UK: CABI, CABI, Undated a. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. mail to or 2. For Florida ranchers, the control costs of S. viarum were estimated at $6.5 to 16 million annually (Thomas, 2007), and economic losses from cattle heat stress alone have been estimated at $2 million (Mullahey et al., 1998). However, aminopyralid can be applied at any time of year and will control existing plants and germinating seedlings for over 6 months after application (Hogue et al., 2006). Germination increases from 4 to 64% between 10°C and 30°C, but no germination is found at 5°C and 40°C. Plant Biology (Stuttgart), 8(4):486-493, Coile NC, 1993. Common Weeds in Puerto Rico & U.S Virgin Islands., Puerto Rico: University of Puerto Rico, Mayagüez Campus. chatterjeeanum Sengupta & Sengupta, Highly adaptable to different environments, Tolerates, or benefits from, cultivation, browsing pressure, mutilation, fire etc, Has propagules that can remain viable for more than one year, Highly likely to be transported internationally accidentally, Highly likely to be transported internationally deliberately. This species is able to produce from 40,000 to 50,000 seeds per plant (Mullahey et al. The fruit is a globose berry, mottled green when young, maturing yellow, 2-3 cm across, containing up to 400 brown, flattened, discoid seeds, 2-3 mm in diameter (from Mill, 2001; Weber, 2003). Solanum viarum, Tropical soda apple is a perennial, shrubby herbaceous plant that is on the Federal Noxious Weed list.Plants grow to 6 ft. (1.8 m) in height and width. Accessed on … chatterjeeanum Sen Gupta; Solanum viridiflorum Schltdl. The species has an extensive root system which may extend 1-2 metres horizontally from the crown of the plant (Medal et al., 2012). The Atlas of Florida Plants provides a source of information for the distribution of plants within the state and taxonomic information. Description. The seeds are used as a contraceptive and for menstrual complaints (Mill, 2001). Also, the seeds can be spread by contaminated hay, sod or machinery. Origin: Brazil, Paraguay, Argentina Introduction to Florida: 1985 (Accidental) TOXIC TO LIVESTOCK – See Poisonous Pasture Plants of Florida (UF-IFAS Bookstore Pub SP 457) by B.A. Tobacco mild green mosaic virus, which has no known vector, elicits a severe hypersensitive response in S. viarum and has been developed as a bioherbicide (Charudattan and Hiebert, 2007). With the merger of Solanum aculeatissimum with S. capsicoides (as per Kew Plant list) the latter species can now have both pale yellow, orange red or red fruits even in ripe stage. by Entomology and Nematology Depertment , Florida Cooperative Extension Service , ]. Host specificity of Anthonomus tenebrosus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), a potential biological control agent of tropical soda apple (Solanaceae) in Florida. Beltsville, Maryland, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory. Gloves are needed when handling the cut plants. by Grierson AJC, Long DG, Springate LS, ] Edinburgh, UK: Royal Botanic Gardens, 1037-1078, Mislevy P, Martin FG, 1999. To prevent tropical soda apple spread within a farm or community, steps should be taken to minimize seed production. Agricultural Science Digest, 22(1):67-68, Pemberton RW, Wheeler GS, 2006. S. viarum has been identified as a noxious weed that can smother native plant communities where it has been introduced. The lower branches are ascending whilst the upper ones are spreading Tropical soda apple (Solanum viarum) herbicide susceptibility and competitiveness in tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea). Ferrell. Document SS-AGR-131 [ed. Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: Rio de Janeiro Botanic Garden. S. viarum is difficult to eradicate and the best management strategy varies according to the population size. Glaxo, BARC, IIHR-2N, Arka-sanjivani, Arka Mahima and NBRI sel.) © Copyright 2021 CAB International. Tropical soda apple (Solanum viarum Dunal), a biological pollutant threatening Florida. Weed Technology. Tropical Soda Apple. In: American Journal of Plant Sciences, 3 177-184. Proceedings - Soil and Crop Science Society of Florida [ed. A petition to release Anthonomus tenebrosus was submitted in 2007 (USDA/TAG, 2008), and work with the flower-bud weevil, Platyphora sp. MAGRAMA, 2012. Status of biological control of tropical soda apple, Solanum viarum in Florida. It is recorded as occurring ‘throughout India’ (GISIN, 2008) or ‘widely distributed from the Himalayan foot-hills in the North to the Nilgiris in the South of India’ (Singh et al., 1998), though it is confirmed in only a few of the states. Foliage and stems are unpalatable to cattle (Medal et al., 2012). Thorny nightshade from Argentina, first appeared in the USA in pastures and rangelands in Glades County, Florida, in 1988. The genus Solanum (Solanaceae) in southern Africa: subgenus Leptostemonum, the introduced sections Acanthophora and Torva. Files are available under licenses specified on their description page. by Agronomy Department , Florida Cooperative Extension Service]. The leaves are broadly ovate up to 20 cm long and 15 cm wide, bluntly lobed with markedly undulate edges, generally dark green, glossy above, duller below. [English title not available]. Jump to navigation Jump to search. Where native, S. viarum can be found growing in grassland, thickets, and disturbed places such as roadsides and river banks. Document SS-AGR-50, Agronomy Department, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, University of Florida [ed. In: Proceedings of the XI International Symposium on Biological Control of Weeds, Canberra, Australia, 27 April - 2 May, 2003 Canberra, Australia: CSIRO Entomology, 292-296, Medal J, Overholt W, Charudattan W, Mullahey J, Gaskalla R, Diaz R, Cuda J, 2012., Stravato VM, Cappelli C, 2000. Effects of selected herbicides on the efficacy of tobacco mild green mosaic virus to control tropical soda apple (Solanum viarum). More recently it has been found in Southern Queensland and it is likely that this species is already present in other parts of eastern Australia (Australian Weeds Committee, 2012). 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